Ebook Epub A Fistful of Shells West Africa from the Rise of the Slave Trade to the Age of Revolution â Toby Green – noapathway.co.uk
Ales that were true about the region uring the Middle Ages especially geopolitics concerning the trans Saharan money flow to their arch enemy the Ottoman Empire which was enriched with gold and slave manpower by places like the Kingdom of Mali and later Songhai Ottoman pressure rove the Portuguese to find wealth around the periphery of the Turks yet they still utilized North African information about slavery transmitted through Spain and Morocco as they expanded around the world So Europeans were trade guests in West Africa until the 18 19th centuries raining humanity from the area with mostly willing trade partners Africans were active participants in a global economy where longstanding Les Lgendaires - Les Chroniques de Darkhell 01. Tnbris domestic nonracial slavery spiraled out of control then mixed with mostly Spanish racial blood categorizations later the English Barbados Code as they tried toistinguish themselves from their chattel that they often intermixed with What local leaders valued put them at a isadvantage in comparison with the Europeans which grew as the Europeans industrialized and formalized their colonial grip on much of the world in the 19th century That is why some of the richest places in the world of the past like the nation of Mali are now some of the world s poorest As guests of the multitude of kingdoms like Benin Europeans slowly gained advantage in trade based on cultural ifferences of what was valued gold supplies and slaves versus bronze non African alcohol weapons and cowry shells a global currency accepted from the Americas Africa to China Powerful African leaders valued many The scent different things but primarily weapons toefeat their enemies and most importantly to provide humans to sell Initially most enslaved persons were criminals war captives or internal enemies of the king until that system could no longer meet the دوره حقوق مدنی-عقود معین 1 demand leading to larger wars among African kingdoms treating with European enemies of the prevailing power to gain advantage choosing Dutch or English allies over the Portuguese or resisting when their own subjects were threatened with enslavement Kongo Toby Green makes it clear that Europeans had little chance in enslaving Africans without the expressed permission of kingdoms like Benin or the Ashante Empire Maroon community is a fascinating concept as the escaped enslaved persons transferred everything from religion Islam spirit worship and witch women found in South America for example to music to a warrior lifestyle transferred from W Africa to Haiti by slaves who used jungle warfare techniuesuring the Haitian Revolution They were forcibly taken brutally forced to suffer the horrific Middle Passage and spread throughout the world That 정숙한 남자 [A Man of Virtue] doesn t mean they lost their identity Finally Islam and Christianity had complex relationships with the region but the latter was much less accessible because of European involvement in slavery There are many instances throughout history where the religion of trade becomes the religion of rulers Buddhism in East Asia Hinduism in South East Asia etc Islam arrived first and mostly avoided harsh oppression of native religious practices like animal worship Snake temples in Dahomey were so influential that chieftains wouldn tare etc Some rulers tried to impose Islam and usually it The Gordian Knot Vol. 4 didn t go over very well The status uo returned to indigenous religions either remainingistinct or morphing with the outside ones like the independent African Christian bishops Other kings chose Christianity and even adopted Portuguese culture like in the Kong Kingdom However it was very interesting that there was a renewed acceptance of Islam as a religion with jihad struggle and how some adopted the religion in order to resist a greater European presence in the 19th century It took hundreds of years of European slavery for Islam to make inroads in many of the most stubborn regions of West Africa An interesting tidbit that I can t place anywhere else is that ineffective Oyo kings past their prime were strangled to Aeon Legion death by their wives as a form of regime change Generally women in West Africa were powerful than in much of the world at the time of this work 15th 19th centuries Until the increased spread of Islam and Christianity into the jungle regions of West Africa women were often the source for lineage and control over clans In Oyo and later Dahomey they were apparently an institutionalized system of murder for weak leaders Iidn t realize this book would be so focused on currency and trade If someone is particularly fascinated by those topics they may like this book than I Secretul vieții și alte eseuri didbut I can t believe this book has so many raving reviews The best overall history of West Africa I ve ever read It is rich in the what and the how and references great archival material to give an account t This is a history of West Africa that is centered around the main theme that the involvement of the continent into global tradeid not lead to economic prosperity but instead to eep cultural change and upheaval Much of the argument is related to the point that African exports including mainly slave labour and gold could Be Used For Accumulation used for accumulation hence the creation of new wealth by their importers while African imports cowries cloth iron provided much less op This is the best single history of any part of Africa I ve ever read and should honestly be taught in all schools I picked it up because my knowledge of African history and cultures is so severely lacking the only region we ever learned about in school was Egypt and even that was almost remedial and I needed to have a well rounded understanding of the world This was the perfect book to pick up It s impeccably sourced and researched but remains uite readable and includes lots of maps charts and photos to help visualize the information The author provides highly nuanced approaches towards gender history and politics the true impact of colonialism and religious influence and embraces a complexity that azzled me I wish history books were this thorough and honest there is no cover up or one sided perspective here The insistence on Lebanese War depth enriches every chapter and leave you with a full 360egree view of here The insistence on The Sacred Band depth enriches every chapter and leave you with a full 360egree view of in West Africa in the period of transition around the 18th century I haven t read a book this eep in uite some time and it took a long time to finish but it was immensely worth the effort Toby Green s approach to history by using currency to explain how slavery started and true impact it had in this region and globally is a brilliant idea and I think this information should be taught in all American classrooms as a mandatory part of understanding why chattel slavery was ifferent and how Dry Hard deeply it robbed an entire continent of its potential If I could give this than 5 stars I would Highly highly recommend. Ught about a revolutionary nineteenth century in Africa parallel to the upheavals then taking place in Europe and America Yet political fragmentation following the fall of African aristocracies produced radicallyifferent results as European colonization took hold Drawing not just on written histories but on archival research in nine countries art oral history archaeology and letters Green lays bare the transformations that have shaped world politics and the global economy since the fifteenth century and paints a new and masterful portrait of West Africa past and presen. .
The British Historian Toby Green s monograph A Fistful of Shells is an economic history of Western Africa from the late Medieval West Africa to West Africa in the Age of Revolution mainly focused on the Islamic Jihads in West Africa in the early 19th Century The book is mainly focused on the economic social and cultural impacts of the Trans Atlantic Slave Trade on West Africans The central argument is that trade imbalance in currencies between West Africans and Europeans in the time led to current economic ineuality between West Africa and the rest of the Atlantic World Green believes that the way economic history is taught in most of the world is very heavily Eurocentric at the cost of ignoring the true complexity and global nature of economic history Green is interested in showing that the economic systems in Western Africa were as eveloped as the economic system in Europe by the time of the arrivals of the Portuguese traders in the 15th Century in ways that were similar and ifferent to the economic systems of Europe at that time Green wants to show that West Africans had agency within the early trans Atlantic economic system The Trans Atlantic economic system for Green created a tax base an economic system and a military system to build a collection of early modern states in West Africans similar to European states that eveloped in the early modern era West Africans became tired of the corrupting power of the trans Atlantic trading on the political ruling class of West Africa During the Age of Revolution a series of Jihad movements swept through Islamic West Africa This movement gained popularity by promising to end the irect impact of the trans Atlantic slave trade on the subjects of these new Islamic Caliphates in West Africa I was convinced by most of the main arguments of the monograph I thought the inclusive economic history of the Atlantic World was very interesting in part because I never realized the history that they teach in economics class was Eurocentric Economic history hopefully becomes global and inclusive in the future This is one of the most thought provoking and insightful works of history that I have read for some time Green connects pre colonial West African history to wider global trends as a robust rebuttal to the notion that Africa has no history or had an economic history rooted in barter notions which still have surprising currency Speaking of currency Green anchors much of this superb study in patterns of trade and foreign exchange between West Africa and the wider Atlantic economy For several centuries Western African societies exported what might be called hard currencies especially gold these were currencies that on a global scale retained their value over time For the first two centuries of Atlantic slave trade these societies also imported large amounts of goods that were used as currencies cowries copper cloth and iron However these were what we might call soft currencies which were losing their relative value over time By 1700 therefore centuries of trade had been grounded in ineualities of the exchange of economic value Among other things this would lead to what economists might today call a terms of trade shock which weakened West African states and economies ahead of the late 19th century colonisation scramble The net cast by the book is wide Who knew that West African emand for iron ore helped to facilitate early industrialisation in Eurpe Then there is the Age of Revolution in the book s title the age that began with the American French and Haitian Revolutions and Britain s Industrial Revolution Green reclaims West Africa s place in this history the peoples of the region overthrew aristocracies that had emerged to prey on them including literally in the case of enslavement There were echoes of this around THE ATLANTIC WHICH HAVE SINCE LARGELY Atlantic which have since largely lost to history When political analysts today speak of state failure or failed states in Africa they are often etached from the Searching for Wanda deep historical roots of these trends The same might be said about the ineualities that have helped to give rise to 21st century Islamist militancy on the continent which is also in some ways an echo of past movements that flourished against the backdrop of increasing ineuities One hopes to someay see similar histories of east and Southern Africa It s been a while since a book significantly changed the way I think about either a region of the world or an entire epoch of world history and this book Ray Ryan did both Aside from providing an extremely convincing and well argued thesis about the causes of the economicivergence between West Africa and Europe that I won t try to summarize here the author Daddys Sweet Girl: A Dark Stepfamily Love Story does a great job of re centering West Africa in the last millennium of world history and exploding Hegel s widely subscribed notion that Africa has no history You absolutelyo not have to have an especially strong interest in the particulars of West African history to get a lot out of this book An interest in any of the following will The Last True Explorer do What are the historic origins of African underdevelopment Howid African states change uring this era and how were these changes connected to early globalization What are the implications of one of the findings of this book that broadly analogous historical processes took place simultaneously in Africa Europe and the Americas at this time especially uring the age of revolution On my reading one conclusion is that these histories Location, Location, Damnation (The Brackenford Cycle did not somehow evolve separately until the rise of colonialism in the nineteenth century but rather always grew togetherEconomics aside the book s initial focus on the centuries prior to anduring the early stages of the growth of the Atlantic slave trade are actually surprisingly interesting and thought provoking For example Thrones, Dominations depictions of medieval Europe being influenced in a big way by changes in West Africa vignettes of all the many ambassadors stationed at European courts and Brazil by African kingdoms starting in the 15th century and the narration of Kongo as a significantiplomatic player in European affairs in the 17th century among other things really changed the way I think about pre colonial Euro African relationsOne minor fault in Part 2 of the book while there s nothing wrong with the thematic focusorganization of the chapters as opposed to geographic as in Part 1 I I Hela Cnau did find that the narrative got a bit convoluted and lost among aeluge of rapidly changing people places and times sometimes all within a single page Judging by the amount of notes and underlines I made I was considerably less engaged some sections of Part 2 In sum if you re even a little interested in world history and issues OF THIS BOOK WILL NICELY development this book will nicely out your understanding of the subjec. By the time the “Scramble for Africa” among European colonial powers began in the late nineteenth century Africa had already been globally connected for centuries Its gold had fueled the economies of Europe and the Islamic world for nearly a millennium and the sophisticated kingdoms spanning its west coast had traded with Europeans since the fifteenth century Until at least 1650 this was a trade of euals using a variety of currencies most importantly cowrie shells imported from the Maldives and nzimbu shells imported from Brazil But as the slave trade grew African ki. ,
T Toby Green offers an analytical history of Western Africa from 1000 CE to the mid 19th century the pre colonial era though mostly focused on the latter three centuries This is an immense region between modern ay Angola and Senegal within which a great iversity of states has contributed to a complex story of trade warfare and cultural exchange From the outset the region has been connected with networks of trade and exchange to the North and East primarily with the Islamic world of North Africa but through that to India and Europe Over time alternative trade networks Jace's Pet developed using Atlantic shipping routes to provideirect links with Europe and the Americas The African states were not restricted to primitive systems of barter as often suggested but took a full and active part in commercial trading through the medium of a range of The Mistake (Off-Campus, different types of currency including gold shells cloth nuts and others all serving their function effectively alongside welleveloped systems of commercial credit African states were caught up in changes and Piraten! developments notissimilar to those in Europe and Islamic states bearing in mind that in the early part of this history Europe was convulsed by its own religious wars and progression from feudalism to the evolution of early modern states Engaging in trade enabled African rulers to secure growing tax revenues from which to fund the administrative and military basis for stable and growing states while increased access to currency supported growth in their omestic economies to serve new types of emand such as provisions for the Atlantic shipping Africa like Europe was adapting to climate change in the period of the Little Ice Age leading to The Complete Guide To Surfing Your Best diversification of crops and adopting new foods often introduced from America Trade introduced Africans to new technologies especially for military use Europeans were keen to supply new weapons including guns and gunpowder though excellent swords and later muskets were also manufactured by Africans Over time trade also exposed African producers to intensifying competition and indeedumping of Europe s over production in important markets especially textiles ruining some African industries and forcing change in others Trade was especially important to Africa s emerging elites providing the impetus and the resources to support a warrior aristocracy increasingly remote from and oppressive towards the general population This process was vastly intensified by the trade in captive humans across the Atlantic which many African rulers became increasingly From Tree Dwellings To New Towns dependent upon asemand fell for other African products in the face of European competition while the emand for commercial products of farms and plantations within Africa cotton palm oil nuts was to create a comparable local emand for captive labour which was met by continuous warfare and raiding between neighbouring states By the mid 18th Century extreme social A Streetcar Named Desire. By Nicola Onyett (Philip Allan Literature Guide divisions were leading to revolutionary movements from below notissimilar to events in Europe and the Americas and in large swathes of Western Africa people regarded conversion to Islam and religious reforms within Islam as a viable path to liberation though the results in the pre colonial era of the 19th Century were not radically issimilar to the preceding arrangements The model for precolonial West African states is summed up by Green in one word predatory and this in turn has influenced attitudes and values in the post colonial era both among elites and among the people Despite participating energetically in a global trading network and in the process of modernisation West African states were at an increasing isadvantage compared to the European experience and the key ifferences identified by Toby Green arise from the compared to the European experience and the key ifferences identified by Toby Green arise from the of European capitalism In very simple terms capitalism engages in production whether agricultural or manufacturing and trade as a path to ongoing capital accumulation other traditions have effectively consumed the wealth created The same contrast has been made between the Spanish and states of the 16th and 17th centuries whose aristocracies and monarchies wasted the wealth of their economies for isplays of extravagance and for wars of religion or just succession and the prudent behaviour of Dutch or English capitalists who encouraged trade and improvement as a path to create new wealth The outcome was to establish profound ineuality in the terms of trade between West Africans and Europeans in particular That structural ineuality persists today both in terms of global trade and local social and political structures continually changing in its specific manifestations but nonetheless reflecting many common features with the history escribed in this book This is a book in which Africans are given a full active part to play in their own history as agents and participants not simply as silent victims There are many indications too of substantial ways in which Africans have shaped Lolo developments across the Americas and continue to participate in a transatlantic cultural network The Atlantic slave trade is hugely important throughout but it is not by any means the only theme or even the most important one Unbearable Crazy structure which leads to repetion after repetition after repetition and info going all over the place through geographies time cultures and everything else I am just not smart enough to follow Author s tone becomes tedious over time and one really wonders how objective his facts are considering his strong personal biasesIt s a shame because I would hav Superb economic history This is what history is supposed to be like This is an incrediblyense work so I ll only highlight a few things that interested me This isn t my first slavery or African history for sure but there were uniue perspectives that aligned with my instincts
"on the subject It corrects the false narratives that African history stopped with European slavery chattel or that its sub "the subject It corrects the false narratives that African history stopped with European slavery chattel or that its sub people were passive barbarians who were either victimized or uplifted by European colonization As not every European nation engaged in the slave trade like most of Central and all of Eastern Europe Europeans are referred to here generally instead of the main powers involved Spanish Portuguese Dutch English and French Instead Europeans were mostly powerless outsiders until the 19th century subjects of local rulers if they wanted to trade acuire supplies to travel and survive in a hostile tropical climate and to get slave labor for their growing empires Instead of grand unhistorical motivations for white Europeans based simply on skin color instead they arrived first and foremost interested in gold because of their lack of metal and wealth They were fueled by glorious Ngdoms began to lose prominence in the growing global economy We have been living with the effects of this shift ever since With A Fistful of Shells Toby Green transforms our view of West and West Central Africa by reconstructing the world of these kingdoms which revolved around trade Range diplomacy complex religious beliefs and the production of art Green shows how the slave trade led to economicisparities that caused African kingdoms to lose relative political and economic power The concentration of money in the hands of Atlantic elites in and outside these kingdoms bro. .